Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque is located in Iskenderpasa Neighborhood in Istanbul, Aksaray, at the crossroads of four roads. Sultan II. The complex, which was built in Aksaray Square by Pertevniyal Valide Sultan, the wife of Mahmud and the mother of Sultan Abdulaziz, consists of a mosque, school, tomb, tomb room, library, timetable, police station, six fountains and seven shops. In a memorandum from the chief astrologer, it was stated that on Monday, 20 Ramadan 1285 (January 4, 1869), it was Ashraf-isaat fifteen minutes past four and that the foundation of the mosque had to be laid at that hour, and the preparations were made accordingly. The construction of the complex took 121 weeks from 28 Cemâziyelâhir 1285 (16 October 1868) to 16 Shawwal 1287 (9 January 1871). The construction books of the complex, which is in the Topkapı Palace Archive in twenty-four documents, belong to the years 1867-1871.
According to the information here, the building trustee Hüseyin Bey, his assistant Hüsrev Bey, his clerk Sâmi Efendi, the foundation manager Bogos Bey (later Mihran Bey), foreman (architect) Serkis (Balyan) Bey, his assistant brother Agop and Bedros gentlemen, motifs to be embroidered on marble and plaster. Oseb Bey, who drew it, and Agop (Balyan) Bey, his apprentice. Thus, it turns out that it is not correct to show the Italian Montani Efendi as the architect in some sources. At the end of the expropriation works that lasted for two years, a total of 753,865 kuruş was spent1.
Previously, on the site of this mosque, there was the “Hacı Mustafa Efendi Mosque” or “Katip Mosque”, which was built by Hacı Mustafa Efendi, the clerk of the Kocamustafapaşa foundation, in H.1182/M.1768. While this mosque was burnt and in ruins, it was demolished and the Valide Mosque was built in its place.
The style of the mosque, on the other hand, consisted of a mixture of various architectural styles, from Gothic to Indian architecture, as in the Çırağan palace, including the Turkish architectural style.
The 10-meter-diameter pantandive dome that covers the sanctuary is placed on a high drum with 16 facets and windows on the walls. The sultan’s circle and a related mahfil are located in the north, dominating the view of the mosque. There are towers reminiscent of Indian architecture at four corners of this square-planned mosque2.
Its mihrab is in a classical form with a simple, muqarnas and salbek şemseli top. In the same simplicity, an oyster motif is seen on the side of the marble pulpit. The lectern is octagonal and carved and made of marble. Except for the Rumi pediments, curved branches, muqarnas frieze and inscriptions, all of the decorations are in mixed and foreign styles. Most of the relief decorations made of poor quality stones are worn and almost erased3.
It has a square base, a single balcony, two minarets on both sides with cut stone and stone cones. The minaret of this mosque, whose right minaret was repaired and restored by the foundations in 1988, has grooved minarets and stalactites under the balcony4.
Its interior area is 1000 m2, and the area of the courtyard and garden is 3000 m2. The courtyard of the mosque is entered through three gates, east, west and south. There is a tughra in the middle of the single monumental door arch in the south, and its epitaph is written on a green background under the tughra.
There is a columned fountains set in its courtyard, and Pertevniyal High School is located at the place of Mahmudiye Madrasa. The tomb of Pertevniyal Valide Sultan, located opposite the façade fountain, was also dismantled in 1958 and mounted in the courtyard5.
This mosque, which has a cemetery, musalla stone and the last congregation place, has an inscription belt on the double row of muqarnas marble ornament strip on the pulley between the windows and the dome. Here, “Mulk Surah” is written in relief in celi thuluth calligraphy.
In 2007, the restoration of the mosque and the arrangement of the garden were started by the Foundations Administration.