İznik

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Iznik

Milattan önce yaşamış ama hâlâ efsanesiyle yaşayan Büyük İskender’i bilirsiniz. Bu Makedon kralının ölümünden sonra komutanlarından Antigones, Askania’nın yanına kendi adını verdiği bu küçük şehri inşa etti. Ancak rakibi Lysimakhos ile yaptığı savaşı kaybedince ismiyle birlikte silinmiştir. Yeni komutan eşi Nike’tan ilham alarak burayı ‘Nikea’ yapar. İznik , bu sözünü bozma…

Romalıların kabaca ‘beden eğitimi sahası’ olarak tasarladıkları yerlere ‘gymnasium’ adı veriliyor. Jimnastiğin geldiği yer burasıdır. İşte 7. yüzyılda Romalıların gymnasionu üzerine inşa edilmiş bir Bizans dönemi kilisesi olan İznik Ayasofyası. Orhan Gazi, 1326 yılında Bursa’yı devletinin başkenti yapıp kiliseyi camiye çevirdikten beş yıl sonra İznik’i ele geçirdi.

Iznik Hagia Sophia

Iznik Hagia Sophia

The Iznik Hagia Sophia, which continued on its way with the renovation of Mimar Sinan during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, has one feature: The places where the Christian clergy come to an agreement after discussing and discussing any religious issue are called ‘councils’. Iznik Hagia Sophia is one of the places where the council met. After long discussions here, it was agreed that Jesus Christ was the ‘son of God’. Christianity was institutionalized as a result of the rules referred to in the literature as the ‘Iznik Creed’. Even though Orhan Gazi took Iznik, the city’s relations with the Turks go back to the Seljuks. During the reign of Suleiman Shah, Iznik became the first capital of the Anatolian Seljuks in 1075, let’s note this. This place is like the secret government center of the Çandar people, one of the influential families of the early Ottoman period. The construction of the Green Mosque was started by Çandarlı Halil Hayrettin Pasha and finished by his son Ali Pasha in 1379. In the mosque, which is the pearl of the early Ottoman works, there is an inscription on the altar, which you will not see anywhere else, meaning ‘Allah is the highest of the highest’. Make sure to photograph this article with the letter ‘ vav ‘ in the last congregation place .

Green Mosque

Menorah in the minaret

There is an inscription on your way that you will not see anywhere else. On the inscription of the small, square-planned, dome-covered building built in 1333 in the name of Hacı Özbek, one of the businessmen of the period, it is written by whom and when the mosque was built . This is the oldest inscription from the Ottoman Empire… Kutbeddin , the neighbor of the Green Mosque Izniki’s mosque and tomb is our next stop. Iznikli is an important scholar who lived in the 15th century. His writing of ‘Turkish ilmihal’ (the book that teaches the main principles and rules of the religion of Islam) and his reproach of Emir Timur who defeated Yıldırım Bayezid are among the sentences formed while describing him. There is an interesting detail here: On the pedestal of the minaret, there is a drawing of the ‘seven-armed candelabra’, or menorah , which is considered sacred by the Jews. This tombstone, which is said to belong to a Jewish merchant, was mounted on the minaret as spolia.

Iznik Museum is right next to the mosque. The museum building is an imaret, or charitable institution, built in the name of Orhan Bey’s wife and Murat I’s mother, Nilüfer Hatun. Artifacts from the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods are exhibited in the museum. You will feel yourself at the Istanbul Archeology Museum as you wander among the column capitals, sarcophagi, reliefs, stelae and inscriptions.

Iznik is undoubtedly famous worldwide for its tiles. Archaeological excavations and studies have been continuing since 1963 in the kilns where the tile tiles spread throughout the Ottoman geography were made; Legendary red-paste ceramics dating to the 14th and 15th centuries were found. By the way, if you want to make or buy tiles, there are shops in the bazaar. Worth dropping your way. Even though Iznik tile was replaced by Kütahya tiles, the last period of the empire, it still has a surprising tradition with its own atmosphere.

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