Harran, binlerce yıllık tarihi ile dünyanın sayılı tarihi yerleşim yerlerinden biridir. Şanlıurfa’ya 45 kilometre uzaklıktadır. Güneydoğu gezimizde Mardin’i ziyaret ediyor ve Şanlıurfa merkezden önce Harran için özel bir gün ayırıyoruz. Mardin’den Harran’a üç saatlik yol, uçsuz bucaksız bir ova gibidir. Kestane rengi bozkırlardan, uçsuz bucaksız ovalardan, otlayan koyunlardan ve başıboş atlardan geçerek varıyoruz.
Harran ismi ilk olarak M.Ö. 2250 yılına ait çivi yazılı tabletlerde geçmektedir ve adının Sümerce’de ‘seyahat’ veya ‘karavan’ anlamına gelen ‘haran-u’dan geldiği bilinmektedir. Adının seyahatle özdeşleşmesi bile Harran yolculuğumuza ayrı bir heyecan katıyor.
Our first stop in Harran, which has become the symbol of the region. historical dome houses. After seeing the Trulli houses in the town of Alberobello in the Puglia region of Italy, my curiosity to see the Harran houses increased even more. Trulli houses are very similar to Harran cupolas with their conical roofs. The construction technique and usage areas of Trulli houses are actually different. Most houses serve as hotels, cafes and restaurants. According to a rumor, Italian painters who went to Şanlıurfa were influenced by Harran houses and pioneered the construction of houses with similar architecture in Italy. If there is an influence, it is certain that the Italians were influenced by us, because the history of Harran houses goes way back compared to Trulli houses.
Inside the cupola houses
As soon as we get out of the car, the children of the village He surrounds us with his smiling faces. If you have sweets, chocolates, notebooks and pens to offer to children, you will make them very happy. Some of the dome houses have been renovated and opened to tourism. There are also houses that are still working. We are visiting with the guidance of a hospitable young man from the locals of the village, who has all the information about houses, history and architecture. Cupola houses were built 200 years ago. The roof is made using the overlap technique. Its domes can reach 5 meters and consist of 30-40 rows of bricks. Each cupola represents a room. We learned that terracotta, straw, rose oil and egg white were used in the mortar of the bricks. Both the architectural structure and these materials ensure that the houses are warm in winter and cool in summer.
In the houses we visited, the rooms are connected to each other. There are sections such as the kitchen, living room, bedroom, bridal room. In one of the rooms, colorful local clothes are exhibited. If you want to look like a Harranian, you can rent these clothes and have your photo taken. There is also a tea and coffee house where you can have coffee against the Harran Plain after visiting the houses. I don’t know if it’s because of the air or the water, but the coffee we drink against this view is very delicious.
Walls and doors are left
After a coffee break, our next destination is Harran Ruins… It is said to be the first university established in the world in some sources, and the first university owned by Muslims in others. It has hosted various inventions, especially in the field of astronomy. Now only some walls and doors remain of the university. Even with so few ruins, we are making a journey into the past by using our imagination and thinking about what was going on in this geography at that time. Another spot you will see in Harran is the Great Mosque, which was used as a mosque and a madrasa, with its gate and one tower still standing, and the Harran Castle next to it. The castle was built adjacent to the city wall. Umayyad Caliph II. It is known that the palace built by Mervan by spending a great fortune formed the foundation of the castle. The tomb of Sheikh Yahya Hayat El-Harrani, an important Islamic scholar who lived in the 12th century, is another historical spot that must be seen.
See the Ulu Mosque, which was used as a mosque and madrasa, with a door and a tower still standing, and the castle next to it.
Soğmatar Ancient City
Prophet Shuayb ‘s house
There are many places to see around Harran. One of them is the Bazda Caves, an old quarry. Add Han El-Ba’rur Caravanserai, 27 kilometers from Harran, to your list. The caravanserai on the Harran-Baghdad road consists of a hammam, a small mosque, summer rooms and barns. From here, make your way to Şuayb, an ancient city dating back to the Late Roman period. It is also known as the Ephesus of the Southeast due to the similarities in its architecture. According to a rumor, Prophet Shuayb used a cave here as a house and a place of worship. You can reach the Soğmatar Ancient City by continuing 15 kilometers from the city of Şuayb. This is a temple built during the Abgar Kingdom. Harran gives us a wonderful day, like a treasure chest that gets more beautiful as it opens for curious travelers…